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The role of individual differences in learner activation of language learning strategies. Part III. Personality traits: an overview of the research (The Role of Individual Differences)

Since the early 1970s it has become obvious that there is no single universal method of second/foreign language teaching/learning, or a set of techniques that could allow all learners to accomplish this complex task successfully. Learners are different and, therefore, language teaching methodologies and learning agendas, no matter how thoroughly planned and how well designed, can neither be considered complete nor prove effective if researchers and teachers do not attach equal importance to the variety of notions that come under the umbrella concept of individual learner differences. One of them is the age factor, since it determines stages of human cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional development. Other individual variables which may influence the process of language learning and its results are: the learner"s cognitive/learning styles, personality traits, and strategies for language learning and use. In this series of three articles, the author offers an overview of the research on the links between selected cognitive as well as affective factors and learners" choice and use of learning strategies. She also discusses relevant pedagogical implications and stresses the importance of activities which integrate foreign language teaching/learning with learner strategy training.

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